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List of Examples

List of Tables


I Tcl Basics

1. Tcl Fundamentals

Tcl Commands
Hello, World!
Command Substitution
Math Expressions
Backslash Substitution
Grouping with Braces and Double Quotes
Square Brackets Do Not Group
Grouping before Substitution
A Factorial Example
More about Variables
Funny Variable Names
The unset Command
Using info to Find Out about Variables
More about Math Expressions
Substitution and Grouping Summary
Fine Points
Backslash Sequences
Arithmetic Operators
Built-in Math Functions
Core Tcl Commands

2. Getting Started

The source Command
UNIX Tcl Scripts
Windows 95 Start Menu
The Macintosh and ResEdit
The console Command
Command-Line Arguments
Command-Line Options to Wish
Predefined Variables

3. The Guestbook CGI Application

A Quick Introduction to HTML
CGI for Dynamic Pages
The guestbook.cgi Script
Beginning the HTML Page
Simple Tags and Hypertext Links
Using a Tcl Array for the Database
Sample Output
Defining Forms and Processing Form Data
The newguest.html Form
The newguest.cgi Script
Next Steps

4. String Processing in Tcl

The string Command
Strings and Expressions
The append Command
The format Command
The scan Command
String Matching
The binary Command
Format Templates
Related Chapters

5. Tcl Lists

Tcl Lists
Constructing Lists
The list command
The lappend Command
The concat Command
Getting List Elements: llength, lindex, and lrange
Modifying Lists: linsert and lreplace
Searching Lists: lsearch
Sorting Lists: lsort
The split Command
The join Command
Related Chapters

6. Control Structure Commands

If Then Else
Comments in switch Commands
Multiple Loop Variables
Multiple Value Lists
Break and Continue
Catching More Than Errors

7. Procedures and Scope

The proc Command
Changing Command Names with rename
The global Command
Call by Name Using upvar
Variable Aliases with upvar
Associating State with Data
Commands That Take Variable Names

8. Tcl Arrays

Array Syntax
Complex Indices
Array Variables
The array Command
Converting Arrays to Lists
Passing Arrays by Name
Building Data Structures with Arrays
Simple Records
A Stack
A List of Arrays

9. Working with Files and Programs

Running Programs with exec
The auto_noexec Variable
Limitations of exec on Windows
Limitations of exec on Macintosh
The file Command
Cross-Platform File Naming
Building up Pathnames: file join
Chopping Pathnames: split, dirname, tail
Manipulating Files and Directories
Copying Files
Creating Directories
Deleting Files
Renaming Files and Directories
File Attributes
Input/Output Command Summary
Opening Files for I/O
Opening a Process Pipeline
Reading and Writing
The puts and gets Commands
The read Command
Platform-Specific End of Line Characters
Random Access I/O
Closing I/O channels
The Current Directory - cd and pwd
Matching File Names with glob
Expanding Tilde in File Names
The exit and pid Commands
Environment Variables

II Advanced Tcl

10. Eval

Construct Commands with list
Exploiting the concat inside eval
Double Quotes and eval
More Examples
The uplevel Command
Commands That Concatenate Their Arguments
The subst Command
String Processing with subst

11. Regular Expressions

Regular Expression Syntax
A Pattern to Match URLs
The regexp Command
Useful Regular Expressions
The regsub Command
Transforming Data to Tcl with regsub
URL Decoding
CGI Argument Parsing
Decoding HTML Entities
A Simple HTML Parser
Stripping HTML Comments
Other Commands That Use Regular Expressions

12. Script Libraries and Packages

Locating Packages: The auto_path Variable
Using Packages
Loading Packages Automatically
Packages Implemented in C Code
The package Command
Libraries Based on the tclIndex File
The unknown Command
How Auto Loading Works
Disabling the Library Facility: auto_noload
Interactive Conveniences
Auto Execute
Tcl Shell Library Environment
Coding Style
A Module Prefix for Procedure Names
A Global Array for State Variables

13. Reflection and Debugging

The clock Command
The info Command
The Call Stack
Command Evaluation
Scripts and the Library
Version Numbers
Execution Environment
Cross-Platform Support
Tracing Variable Values
Interactive Command History
History Syntax
A Comparison to C Shell History Syntax
Don Libes' Debugger
Breakpoints by Pattern Matching
Deleting Break Points
Debugging Tk Scripts
The tkinspect Program
The tdebug Program
The bgerror Command
The tkerror Command
Performance Tuning
Time stamps in a Log
Tcl 8.0

14. Namespaces

Using Namespaces
Namespace Variables
Qualified Names
Command Lookup
Nested Namespaces
Importing Procedures
Other Namespaces
Callbacks and Namespaces
The namespace Command
Wrapping Existing Packages
[incr Tcl] Object System
Auto Loading
Namespaces and uplevel
Naming Quirks

15. Event-Driven Programming

The Tcl Event Loop
The after Command
The fileevent Command
The vwait Command
The fconfigure Command
Non-Blocking I/O
The fblocked Command
End of Line Translations
End of File Character
Serial Devices
Configuring Read-Write Channels

16. Socket Programming

Client Sockets
Client Socket Options
Server Sockets
Server Socket Options
The Echo Service
Fetching a URL with HTTP
Proxy Servers
The HEAD Request
The GET and POST Requests
The unsupported0 Command
The fcopy Command
The http Package

17. Multiple Interpreters and

The interp Command
Creating Interpreters
The Interpreter Hierarchy
The Interpreter Name as a Command
Use list with interp eval
Safe Interpreters
Command Aliases
Alias Introspection
Hidden Commands
I/O from Safe Interpreters
The Safe Base
Security Policies
Limited Socket Access
Limited Temporary Files
Safe after Command

III Tk Basics

18. Tk Fundamentals

Hello, World! in Tk
Naming Tk Widgets
Configuring Tk Widgets
Tk Widget Attributes and the Resource Database
The Tk Manual Pages
Summary of the Tk Commands

19. Tk by Example

Window Title
A Frame for Buttons
Command Buttons
A Label and an Entry
Key Bindings and Focus
A Resizable Text and Scrollbar
The Run Procedure
The Log Procedure
The Stop Procedure
Cross-Platform Issues
The Example Browser
More about Resizing Windows
Managing Global State
Searching through Files
Cascaded Menus
A Read-Only Text Widget
A Tcl Shell
Text Marks, Tags, and Bindings
Multiple Interpreters
Native Look and Feel

20. The Pack Geometry Manager

Packing toward a Side
Shrinking Frames and pack propagate
Horizontal and Vertical Stacking
The Cavity Model
Packing Space and Display Space
The -fill Option
Internal Padding with -ipadx and -ipady
External Padding with -padx and -pady
Resizing and -expand
Packing Order
Pack the Scrollbar First
Choosing the Parent for Packing
Unpacking a Widget
Packer Summary
The pack Command
Window Stacking Order

21. The Grid Geometry Manager

A Basic Grid
The -sticky Setting
External Padding with -padx and -pady
Internal Padding with -ipadx and -ipady
Multiple Widgets in a Cell
Spanning Rows and Columns
Row and Column Constraints
Row and Column Padding
Minimum Size
Managing Resize Behavior
The grid Command

22. The Place Geometry Manager

place Basics
The Pane Manager
Parsing Arguments and Maintaining State
Sticky Geometry Settings
Event Bindings
Managing the Layout
The place Command

23. Binding Commands to Events

The bind Command
The bindtags Command
Focus and Key Events
Using break and continue in Bindings
Defining New Binding Tags
Binding Precedence in Tk 3.6
Event Syntax
Keyboard Events
Detecting Modifiers in Tk 3.6
Mouse Events
Other Events
Bindings on Top-level Windows
Modifiers in Tk 3.6
Event Sequences
Virtual Events
Event Keywords

IV Tk Widgets

24. Buttons and Menus

Button Commands and Scope Issues
Buttons Associated with Tcl Variables
Button Attributes
Button Operations
Menus and Menubuttons
A Menu Bar
System Menus
Pop-Up Menus
Option Menus
Multicolumn Palette Menus
Keyboard Traversal
Manipulating Menus and Menu Entries
Menu Attributes
A Menu by Name Package
Menu Accelerators

25. The Resource Database

An Introduction to Resources
Resource Patterns
Loading Option Database Files
Adding Individual Database Entries
Accessing the Database
User-Defined Buttons
User-Defined Menus
Application and User Resources
Expanding Variables

26. Simple Tk Widgets

Frames and Toplevel Windows
Attributes for Frames and Toplevels
Embedding Other Applications
Toplevel Window Styles
The Label Widget
Label Width and Wrap Length
Label Attributes
The Message Widget
Message Attributes
Arranging Labels and Messages
The Scale Widget
Scale Bindings
Scale Attributes
Programming Scales
The bell Command

27. Scrollbars

Using Scrollbars
The Scrollbar Protocol
The Scrollbar set Operation
The xview and yview Operations
The Tk 3.6 Protocol
The Scrollbar Widget
Scrollbar Bindings
Scrollbar Attributes
Programming Scrollbars

28. The Entry Widget

Using Entry Widgets
Tips for Using Entry Widgets
The Entry Widget
Entry Attributes
Programming Entry Widgets

29. The Listbox Widget

Using Listboxes
Programming Listboxes
Listbox Bindings
Browse Select Mode
Single Select Mode
Extended Select Mode
Multiple Select Mode
Scroll Bindings
Listbox Attributes
Geometry Gridding

30. The Text Widget

Text Indices
Inserting and Deleting Text
Index Arithmetic
Comparing Indices
Text Marks
Mark Gravity
Text Tags
Tag Attributes
Mixing Attributes from Different Tags
Line Spacing and Justification
Tab Stops
The Selection
Tag Bindings
Searching Text
Embedded Widgets
Embedded Images
Looking inside the Text Widget
Looking at Tags
Looking at Marks
Dumping the Contents
Text Bindings
Text Operations
Text Attributes

31. The Canvas Widget

Canvas Coordinates
Hello, World!
Canvas Tags
The Min Max Scale Example
Canvas Objects
Arc Items
Bitmap Items
Image Items
Line Items
Oval Items
Polygon Items
Rectangle Items
Text Items
Window Items
Canvas Operations
Generating Postscript
Canvas Attributes
Screen Coordinates vs. Canvas Coordinates
Large Coordinate Spaces
Scaling and Rotation
Objects with Many Points
Selecting Canvas Items

V Tk Details

32. Selections and the Clipboard

The Selection Model
The selection Command
The clipboard Command
Selection Handlers
A Canvas Selection Handler

33. Focus, Grabs, and Dialogs

Standard Dialogs
Message Box
File Dialogs
Color Dialog
Custom Dialogs
Input Focus
The focus Command
Keyboard Focus Traversal
Grabbing the Focus
The tkwait Command
Destroying Widgets
The focus, grab, tkwait sequence
Prompter Dialog
Keyboard Shortcuts and Focus
Animation with the update Command

34. Tk Widget Attributes

Configuring Attributes
Borders and Relief
The Focus Highlight
Padding and Anchors
Putting It All Together

35. Color, Images, and Cursors

Color Palettes
Color Values
Colormaps and Visuals
Bitmaps and Images
The image Command
Bitmap Images
The bitmap Attribute
Photo Images
The Text Insert Cursor
The Mouse Cursor

36. Fonts and Text Attributes

Naming a Font
Named Fonts
System Fonts
X Font Names
Font Failures before Tk 8.0
Font Metrics
The font Command
Text Attributes
Selection Attributes
Gridding, Resizing, and Geometry
A Font Selection Application

37. Send

The send Command
Send and X Authority
The Sender Script
Communicating Processes
Remote eval through Sockets

38. Window Managers and Window Information

The wm Command
Size, Placement, and Decoration
Session State
The winfo Command
Sending Commands between Applications
Family Relationships
Virtual Root Window
Atoms and IDs
Colormaps and Visuals
The tk Command

39. Managing User Preferences

App-Defaults Files
Defining Preferences
The Preferences User Interface
Managing the Preferences File
Tracing Changes to Preference Variables
Improving the Package

40. A User Interface to Bindings

A Pair of Listboxes Working Together
The Editing Interface
Saving and Loading Bindings

VI C Programming

41. C Programming and Tcl

Using the Tcl C Library
Application Structure
Creating a Loadable Package
The load Command
Using Tcl_PkgProvide
A C Command Procedure
The String Command Interface
Managing String Result
The Object Command Interface
Managing Object Reference Counts
Tcl_Main and Tcl_AppInit
The Event Loop
Invoking Scripts from C
Bypassing Tcl_Eval
Expect's Tcl Debugger
The Dbg C Interface
Handling SIGINT
Putting a Tcl Program Together
A Simple UNIX Example

42. C Library Overview

An Overview of the Tcl C Library
Application Initialization
Creating and Deleting Interpreters
Creating and Deleting Commands
Dynamic Loading and Packages
Managing the Result String
Memory Allocation
Lists and Command Parsing
Command Pipelines
Tracing the Actions of the Tcl Interpreter
Evaluating Tcl Commands
Reporting Script Errors
Manipulating Tcl Variables
Evaluating Expressions
Converting Numbers
Tcl Objects
Primitive Object Types
String Keys for Data Structures
Option Processing
Hash Tables
Dynamic Strings
Regular Expressions and String Matching
Event Loop Interface
Handling Window Events
File Handlers
Timer Events
Idle Callbacks
Event Loop Implementation
I/O Channel Drivers
Manipulating File Names
Working with Signals
Exit Handlers
An Overview of the Tk C Library
Parsing Command-Line Arguments
The Standard Application Setup
Creating Windows
Application Name for Send
Configuring Windows
Window Coordinates
Window Stacking Order
Window Information
Configuring Widget Attributes
Safe Handling of the Widget Data Structure
The Selection and Clipboard
Event Bindings
Handling Graphic Protocol Errors
Using the Resource Database
Managing Bitmaps
Creating New Image Types
Using an Image in a Widget
Photo Image Types
Canvas Object Support
Geometry Management
String Identifiers (UIDS)
Colors, Colormaps, and Visuals
3D Borders
Mouse Cursors
Fonts and Text Display
Graphics Contexts
Allocate a Pixmap
Screen Measurements
Relief Style
Text Anchor Positions
Line Cap Styles
Line Join Styles
Text Justification Styles
X Resource ID Management

43. Writing a Tk Widget in C

The Widget Data Structure
The Widget Class Command
The Widget Instance Command
Configuring and Reconfiguring Attributes
Specifying Widget Attributes
Displaying the Clock
The Window Event Procedure
Final Cleanup

VII Changes

44. Tcl 7.4/Tk 4.0

Obsolete Features
The cget Operation
Input Focus Highlight
Scrollbar Interface
pack info
The send Command
Internal Button Padding
Radiobutton Value
Entry Widget
No geometry Attribute
Text Widget
Color Attributes
Color Allocation and tk colormodel
Canvas scrollincrement
The Selection
The bell Command

45. Tcl 7.5/Tk 4.1

Cross-Platform Scripts
File Name Manipulation
Newline Translations
The tcl_platform Variable
The console Command
The clock Command
The load Command
The package Command
Multiple foreach loop variables
Event Loop Moves from Tk to Tcl
Network Sockets
info hostname
The fconfigure Command
Multiple Interpreters and Safe-Tcl
The grid Geometry Manager
The Text Widget
The Entry Widget

46. Tcl 7.6/Tk 4.2

More file Operations
Virtual Events
Standard Dialogs
New grid Geometry Manager
Macintosh unsupported1 Command

47. Tcl/Tk 8.0

The Tcl Compiler
Compile-Time Errors
Binary String Support
New lsort
No tcl_precision Variable
Year 2000 Convention
Http Package
Serial Line I/O
Platform-Independent Fonts
The tk scale Command
Application Embedding
Native Menus and Menubars
CDE Border Width
Native Buttons and Scrollbars
Images in Text Widgets
No Errors from destroy
grid rowconfigure
Late Breaking News

48. Safe-Tk and
the Browser Plug-In

Tk in Child Interpreters
Embedding Tk Windows
Safe-Tk Restrictions
The Browser Plug-In
Setting Up the Plug-In
UNIX Configuration
Windows Configuration
Macintosh Configuration
Security Policies and Browser Plug-in
The Browser Package
Configuring Security Policies

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Copyright © 1997, Brent Welch. All rights reserved.
This will be published by Prentice Hall as the 2nd Edition of
Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk